Sunday, June 3, 2007
Crawford coat of arms
First, a Family Coat of Arms is a fictional creation. Coats of Arms are strictly for individuals and owned by individuals. Coats of Arms were and still are very much like a modern Registered Trade Mark for an individual. Each individual Arms is different from any other. What makes them incredibly valuable to researchers is that the rules governing each characteristic describe the individual in a symbolic way. This description can give hints about the owner's lineage and sometimes achievements.
Protection of ownership in Scotland is enforced by the Lyon Court. Outside Scotland ownership is not as formal. Arms are made of several features: the shield, the helm, the crest, the motto (a uniquely Scottish tradition), the supporters, and the mantle. A very interesting design is this contemporary registration of a descendant of the Ardmillan Cadet, with the paternal line in the dominant 1st and 4th quarters.
Aside from differencing, which is particularly important for Clan members whose genealogy is determined, the common features of the shield of a Crawfordjohn Branch member are that the shield is gules (red) with an ermine (white with black tails) fess (middle third). The shield to the above right is a single-differenced Crawfurdjohn Branch shield, a basic shield with a cloud geometry on the upper fess edge. Differencing is: (1) a slight geometric variation in the borders and edges, (2) addition of charges (symbols), as well as (3) more drastic quartering the shield among various paternal and maternal lineal descendencies. The quartered shields now appear in the Kilbirnie Cadet as a combination of the Crawford and Barclay shields, as shown above right, for reasons shown in the pedigree.
Chief's Shield, 1314-1700
Chief's Shield, post-1700
However, as shown to the left the Chief's line (Auchinames Cadet) adopted a silver (white) shield with two tilting lances in saltire between 4 spots of ermine, symbolizing the honors earned in the Battle of Bannockburn by Reginald Craufurd and the reason for the grant of Auchinames. And to further complicate matters, the Dalmagregan Branch shield is entirely different, being a silver (white) shield with a red stag's head as shown on the left, commemorating the act of Gregan de Craufurd.
The Coat pictured above right shows an amalgamated Coat of Arms. The shield is the original undifferenced Crawfordjohn Branch shield. Atop the shield is the helm indicating social status. Atop the helm is variation of the Dalmagregan Branch crest, in this case the face forward roe buck topped with the original Patriarchal Cross. Below the shield is the banner with the Dalmagregan Branch motto. There are no supporters for the shield and the mantling is a typical leaf design. But this doesn't preclude other Clan armigers from adding supporters. For example, the arms of one of the Dalmagregan cadets included two black horned bulls supporting the shield.
Coat of Arms
Clan Chief, 1314-1700
As the example on the right shows, the pre-1700 Clan Chief's Arms had a silver (white) shield, crossed lances, 4 ermine spots, a rising phoenix above the helm, and the Crawfordjohn motto. After the Dalmagregan and Crawfordjohn Branches unified in 1700 the shield of the Chief consisted of a quartered shield of representations from the 2 branches of the Clan as shown on the left. The 1st and 4th quarters of the shield are silver (white) with red stag's head for Kerse and Drumsoy. The 2nd quarter is silver (white) with crossed lances between 4 ermine spots for Auchinames. And the 3rd quarter is the Crawfordjohn red shield with ermine fess. Additionally, the Dalmagregan motto and crest were adopted for the new Chief's paternal line. It is particularly important to note that while the arms of Clan Branch members may show the arms of other families through quartering, the Clan Crawford Chief's Arms never demonstrate allegiance to any other clan, sept, or family. Clan Crawford is indeed a separate clan just waiting for a Chief to be identified.
Arms Listed with the Heraldry Society of Scotland
source: Lyon Court registrations
Crawford Gules, a fess Ermine
Crawford (aliter)* Argent, a stag’s head erased Gules
Crawford of Ardmillan Gules, on a fess Ermine between three mullets Argent two crescents interlaced Gules
Crawford of Auchinames Argent, two spears in saltire between four Ermine spots
Crawford of Auchinames (aliter)* Gules, a fess Ermine surmounted by two lances in saltire Argent
Crawford of Cartsburn Gules, a fess Ermine between three mullets in chief Argent and two swords in saltire Proper hilted and pommelled Or in base all within a bordure wavy Argent
Crawford of Cloverhill Gules, a fess Ermine between three crows Argent
Crawford of Camlarg Argent, a stag’s head erased Sable attired Or distilling drops of blood Proper
Crawford of Crawfurdland, John Gules, a fess Ermine
Crawford of Drumsoy Argent, a stag’s head erased Gules
Crawford of Easter Seaton, Henry Gules, a fess wavy Ermine between three mullets Argent pierced Azure
Crawford of Haining Gules, a fess Ermine between two stars in chief and a hart’s head couped in base Or
Crawford of Jordanhill, Thomas Quarterly: 1st and 4th Gules, a fess Ermine (Crawford) 2nd and 3rd Azure, a chevron between three crosses patty Or (Barclay)
Crawford of Kerse Argent, a stag’s head erased Gules
Crawford of Kilbirnie Gules, a fess Ermine
Crawford of Lochnoris Gules, a fess Ermine and in chief two stars Or
Crawford of Loudon Gules, a fess Ermine
Crawford, Earl of (Lindsay) Quarterly: 1st and 4th Gules, a fess chequy Argent and Azure (Lindsay) 2nd and 3rd Or, a lion rampant Gules debruised by a riband Sable (Lordship of Abernethy)
Crawford, John in Linlithgow Gules, a fess Ermine between two mullets in chief Argent and a hart’s head cabosses (caboched or caboshed: full-faced with no neck showing) in base Or attired Sable
Crawford, Viscount of Garnock Quarterly: 1st and 4th Gules, a fess Ermine and in base two swords in saltire Proper (Crawford) 2nd and 3rd Azure, a chevron between three crosses patty Or (Barclay)
* (aliter) means alternate or younger branch or cadet.
Now we can see that the Crawfordjohn Branch shares Gules, a fess ermine, the Dalmagregan Branch shares Argent, a stag’s head erased gules, and the Auchinames Cadet shares Argent, two spears in saltire between four ermine spots. All others are variations on such with the Kilbirnie Cadet sharing quarters with the Barclay arms. The Earls of Crawford are entirely different as they are Lindsays. Under the Crawfordjohn Branch are the following cadets: Ardmillan, Cartsburn, Cloverhill, Craufurdland, Easter Seaton, Fedderat, Haining, Kilbirnie, Loudon, and Linlithgow. Under the Dalmagregan Branch are the following cadets: Camlarg, Crawfordton (Nithsdale), Dalleagles, Drongan, Drumsoy, Kerse, Leifnoris, and Terrengan. Under the Kilbirnie Cadet are the following Estates: Cartsburn, Crawfordsburn, Jordanhill, and Garnock. The Auchinames Cadet shares numerous estates, some armigerous and some not, including Newton, Burgh Hall (Lincolnshire), Portencross, and Ardrossan.